Introductory Shaft Alignment Tutorials
2160.1 Introduction to Shaft Alignment
The major topics that will be covered include: the four key ingredients to successfully align machinery, the symptoms you will see if machinery is subjected to run under a misalignment condition, some basic design principles of rotating shafts and the bearings that support them, and the types of static and dynamic forces that occur in machinery.
2160.2 Alignment Tolerances
The major topics that will be covered include: the standard terms used to describe a misalignment condition, the one common design feature inherent in every flexible coupling, defining what shaft misalignment is, what are acceptable amounts of misalignment and what tolerances you should try to attain, and some statistical information on what the estimated time to failure of machinery might be when subjected to operate in a moderate to severe misalignment condition.
2160.3 The Eight Steps of Shaft Alignment
Discusses the eight major steps involved when aligning rotating machinery.
2160.4 Foundations, Baseplates, and Frames
The major topics in this tutorial will discuss the basics of how rotating machinery is attached to structures. The three basic types of rotating machinery support systems ... the types of baseplates machinery is attached to ... and problems to look for on foundations, baseplates, concrete, grout, and anchor bolts.
The major topics in this tutorial will discuss how a dial indicator works ... how to perform a shaft lift check ... how to measure runout ... what are acceptable amounts of runout on rotating machinery ... how to determine what is causing the excessive runout and what you need to do to correct it ... and how runout is frequently and unknowingly overlooked when aligning the shafts of our rotating equipment.
2160.6 Soft Foot
The major topics in this tutorial will discuss what soft foot is and why it should be corrected. How you should go about finding your soft foot issues and the four steps necessary to correct this often overlooked and misunderstood problem.
2160.7 External Connections
The major topics in this tutorial will discuss the issues that can arise when attaching external connections to our rotating equipment ... and how to determine if external connections such as piping, ductwork, or conduit is inducing excessive forces and stresses into our machinery.
2160.8 Vibration on Misaligned Machinery
The major topics that will be discussed in this tutorial will start off analyzing the two basic types of forces that act on our rotating machinery. Static and dynamic forces were mentioned in the first tutorial in this training series but we will take a look at the relation and interaction between them here. An abbreviated list of some of the problems that can be identified using vibration analysis as a non-destructive diagnostic tool will be covered as well as a list of problems that typically cannot be identified using vibration analysis. A discussion on the natural elastic behavior of shafts will be covered and how elastic bending occurs under misalignment conditions. Results from two controlled misalignment studies will be presented that will illustrate what happens to the overall vibration on misaligned rotating equipment.
2160.9 The Five Basic Alignment Methods
The major topics in this tutorial will discuss the basic roughing in techniques for your initial alignment of machinery. You will be introduced to the five primary alignment measurement methods. We will also cover how to override a runout condition when taking your measurements.
2160.10 The Validity Rule
When aligning rotating machinery it is imperative that you obtain accurate shaft positional measurements. It is very easy and very common to make mistakes when taking these measurements so this tutorial will illustrate what you have to be aware of when taking your alignment readings to insure that the measurements you obtain are accurate and repeatable. There is a mathematical pattern that occurs when taking readings at 90 degree intervals around a shaft. This pattern is called the Validity Rule. The Validity Rule will confirm that your measurements make sense but more importantly, can derive a missing measurement if you cannot rotate all the way around the shaft.
2160.11 Bracket Sag and Uncouple
When using mechanical brackets, gravity has an effect on the tooling ... and the bracket sag that exists in your set up must be measured and compensated for. We will also discuss whether or not it is a good idea to keep your couplings engaged when taking alignment readings.